How to install HTML Tidy in Linux

HTML Tidy is a tool for checking and cleaning up HTML source files. It is especially useful for finding and correcting errors in deeply nested HTML, or for making grotesque code legible once more.

Project URL, source code and executable downloads: http://tidy.sourceforge.net/

I installed it on CentOS 4.6 by following the below steps, it should work fine on any Linux distro

Step 1: Go to http://tidy.cvs.sourceforge.net/viewvc/tidy/tidy/ and click on “Download GNU tarball” at the bottom. This will download a file named `tidy.tar.gz`.

Step 2: Untar the file by below command

tar xvzf tidy.tar.gz

Step 3: Change directory to the generated folder

cd tidy

Step 4: Run the below commands

/bin/sh build/gnuauto/setup.sh
./configure --prefix=/usr
make
make install

Step 5: Tidy has been installed successfully, you can check the version by

tidy -v

Output: HTML Tidy for Linux/x86 released on 25 March 2009

Also see

How to connect Ubuntu Server to Dropbox account

dropbox ubuntu

I was looking for a solution to share some of my files in my Ubuntu server to others and while thinking of “cloud computing” at that time, I am thinking if i can try to share my files by linking my box to my existing dropbox account or not. Thus, i give a try and it seem it works. Here are the steps how to do it.

dropbox ubuntu

Step 1. Download and extract the dropbox client

For 32-bit:

$ wget -O dropbox.tar.gz "http://www.dropbox.com/download?plat=lnx.x86"

For 64-bit:

$ wget -O dropbox.tar.gz "http://www.dropbox.com/download?plat=lnx.x86_64"

Step 2. Extract the file

tar -xzvf dropbox.tar.gz

Step 3. Run the dropbox client deamon wiht the following command:

$ ~/.dropbox-dist/dropboxd

Step 4. Since the server is not link to any dropbox account yet, so you will see the following message keep showing every few second:

This client is not linked to any account…
Please visit https://www.dropbox.com/cli_link?host_id=ed2986f99681f0a7b0bf1cd36c79d3e9&cl=en_US to link this machine.
This client is not linked to any account…
Please visit https://www.dropbox.com/cli_link?host_id=ed2986f99681f0a7b0bf1cd36c79d3e9&cl=en_US to link this machine.

Step 5. You may now copy & paste the link to any browser by using any computer so that it will start to link this machine to your dropbox account. You will be asking to provide your username & password in order to link this to your dropbox account.

Step 6. Once it’s successful, you will see the the following message in your Ubuntu linux machine:

$ Client successfully linked, Welcome Chankey!

Step 7. Now you may press CTRL + C to terminate the deamon process now.

Step 8. You can manually start the service by running the following command:

$ ~/.dropbox-dist/dropbox

Step 9. You may start to snyc and copy any file to your dropbox folder now.

Ubuntu 12.04 LTS (Precise Pangolin) released!

Ubuntu 12.04 LTS released

Ubuntu 12.04 LTS released

Imagination is as vital to any advance in science as learning and precision are essential for starting points. – Percival Lowell

The Ubuntu team is very pleased to announce the release of Ubuntu 12.04 LTS (Long-Term Support) for Desktop, Server, Cloud, and Core products.

Codenamed “Precise Pangolin”, 12.04 continues Ubuntu’s proud tradition of integrating the latest and greatest open source technologies into a high-quality, easy-to-use Linux distribution. The team has been hard at work through this cycle, introducing a few new features and improving quality control.

To be a bit more precise about what we’re releasing today…

There are 54 product images and 2 cloud images being shipped with this 12.04 LTS release, with translations available in 41 languages. The Ubuntu project’s 12.04 archive currently has 39,226 binary packages in it, built from 19,179 source packages, so lots of good starting points for your imagination!

For PC users, Ubuntu 12.04 supports laptops, desktops, and netbooks with a unified look and feel based on an updated version of the desktop shell called “Unity”, which introduces “Head-Up Display” search capabilities.

Finding and installing software using the Ubuntu Software Centre is now easier thanks to improvements in speed, search and usability.

Ubuntu Server 12.04 has made it much easier to provision, deploy, host, manage, and orchestrate enterprise data centre infrastructure services with the introduction of new technologies such as “Metal as a Service” (MAAS), the Juju Charm Store, and the latest OpenStack version, codenamed Essex. These technologies further position Ubuntu Server as the best OS for scale-out computing.

Read more about the new features of Ubuntu 12.04 in the following press releases:

http://www.canonical.com/content/ubuntu-server-1204-lts-certified-available-and-ready-hyperscale-world
http://www.canonical.com/content/ubuntu-1204-lts-aims-conquer-enterprise-desktop

Long term support maintenance updates will be provided for Ubuntu 12.04 for five years, through April 2017. For those working on the ARM architecture, an 18 month supported release is also provided for the ARM server using the ARM Hard Float (HF) architecture.

Thanks to the efforts of the global translation community, Ubuntu is now available in 41 languages. For a list of available languages and detailed translation statistics for these and other languages, see:

http://people.canonical.com/~dpm/stats/ubuntu-12.04-translation-stats.html

The newest Kubuntu 12.04 (LTS), Edubuntu 12.04 (LTS), Xubuntu 12.04 (LTS), Mythbuntu 12.04, Lubuntu 12.04 and Ubuntu Studio 12.04 are also being released today. More details can be found in their announcements:

Kubuntu: http://kubuntu.org/news/12.04-release
Xubuntu: http://xubuntu.org/news/12-04-release
Edubuntu: http://edubuntu.org/news/12.04-release
Mythbuntu: http://mythbuntu.org/12.04/release
Lubuntu: https://wiki.ubuntu.com/Lubuntu/Announcement/12.04
Ubuntu Studio: https://wiki.ubuntu.com/UbuntuStudio/12.04release_notes

To get Ubuntu 12.04
———————

In order to download Ubuntu 12.04, visit:

http://www.ubuntu.com/download

Users of Ubuntu 11.10 will be offered an automatic upgrade to 12.04 via Update Manager. For further information about upgrading, see:

http://www.ubuntu.com/download/desktop/upgrade

As always, upgrades to the latest version of Ubuntu are entirely free of charge.

We recommend that all users read the release notes, which document caveats, workarounds for known issues, as well as more in-depth notes on the release itself. They are available at:

http://www.ubuntu.com/getubuntu/releasenotes

Find out what’s new in this release with a graphical overview:

http://www.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/whats-new
http://www.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/features

If you have a question, or if you think you may have found a bug but aren’t sure, you can try asking in any of the following places:

#ubuntu on irc.freenode.net
http://lists.ubuntu.com/mailman/listinfo/ubuntu-users
http://www.ubuntuforums.org
http://askubuntu.com

Help Shape Ubuntu
——————–

If you would like to help shape Ubuntu, take a look at the list of ways you can participate at:

http://www.ubuntu.com/community/get-involved

About Ubuntu
—————

Ubuntu is a full-featured Linux distribution for desktops, laptops, netbooks and servers, with a fast and easy installation and regular releases. A tightly-integrated selection of excellent applications is included, and an incredible variety of add-on software is just a few clicks away.

Professional services including support are available from Canonical and hundreds of other companies around the world. For more information about support, visit:

http://www.ubuntu.com/support

More Information
——————

You can learn more about Ubuntu and about this release on our website listed below:

http://www.ubuntu.com

To sign up for future Ubuntu announcements, please subscribe to Ubuntu’s very low volume announcement list at:

http://lists.ubuntu.com/mailman/listinfo/ubuntu-announce

On behalf of the Ubuntu Release Team,
Kate Stewart

Ubuntu Online Tour
——————–

Enjoy the simplicity of Ubuntu’s stylish, intuitive interface. Take Ubuntu for a test drive with our online tour and download when you’re ready!

How to install GIMP 2.8 RC1 on Ubuntu 12.04

GIMP 2.8 on Ubuntu

GIMP 2.8 RC1 was released on April 8, 2012. The details of this new release are on the official site. Here in this article I’ll show how to install GIMP 2.8 on Ubuntu 12.04.

GIMP 2.8 on Ubuntu
Image credit: Ubuntu Vibes

A PPA for GIMP is now available, we’ll use it for easy installation of GIMP 2.8 RC1. Open up your terminal and type the commands given below:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:otto-kesselgulasch/gimp
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install gimp

and you’re done. GIMP 2.8 RC1 has been successfully installed on your Ubuntu 12.04.

Microsoft counted as key Linux contributor, for now anyway

For the first time ever, and probably only temporarily, Microsoft can be counted as a key contributor to Linux.

The company, which once portrayed the open-source OS kernel as a form of cancer, has been ranked 17th on a tally of the largest code contributors to Linux.

The Linux Foundation’s Linux Development Report, released Tuesday, summarizes who has contributed to the Linux kernel, from versions 2.6.36 to 3.2. The 10 largest contributors listed in the report are familiar names: Red Hat, Intel, Novell, IBM, Texas Instruments, Broadcom, Nokia, Samsung, Oracle and Google. But the appearance of Microsoft is a new one for the list, compiled annually.

Overall, Microsoft contributed 688 changes, or about 1.0 percent of the accepted changes to the kernel, since version 2.6.36. Company engineers also signed off on 2,174 changes, or about 1.1 percent of all the changes in this review period.

Much of the work Microsoft did centers around providing drivers for its own Hyper-V virtualization technology. Microsoft’s Hyper-V, part of Windows Server, can run Linux as a guest OS. Linux kernel developer and LWN.net editor Jon Corbet, a co-author of the study, estimates that Microsoft’s involvement peaked around last year’s 3.0 release of Linux and will diminish over time. “Even the [hypervisor] drivers can only need so much cleaning up,” he wrote in an article explaining the influx of Microsoft contribution.

For the Linux Foundation, Microsoft’s involvement in Linux shows how widely used the OS kernel is these days. Microsoft must work with Linux to be part of the larger enterprise computing ecosystem.

In the time period covered by the report, more than 1,000 developers from nearly 200 companies contributed to the kernel. Lone contributors provided the largest number of changes, 11,413 changes or about 16.2 percent of all the changes in this review period. Among contributions from companies, Red Hat provided the most changes, or 7,563, or 10.7 percent of all changes. After Red Hat, Intel provided the next largest batch of changes, 5,075, or about 7.2 percent of all changes.

On average, between 8,000 and 12,000 patches are added to each new kernel release, which, overseen by Linus Torvalds, come out every two or three months. The vast majority of these changes are developed by outside parties.

In addition to Corbet, Linux kernel maintainer and Linux Foundation fellow Greg Kroah-Hartman, and Linux Foundation Vice President of Marketing and Developer Services Amanda McPherson co-wrote the report.

The Linux Foundation is a nonprofit organization devoted to further developing and maintaining the open-source Linux kernel. It is funded by companies that use Linux in their products and services, including Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Intel, Novell and Oracle.

GNU/Linux Running On An 8-Bit Processor

linux on 8 bit

Dmitry Grinberg has successfully booted Ubuntu 9.04 on an 8 bit micro machine with 6.5 KHz CPU and 16 MB RAM. Grinberg did this experiment on a ATmega1284p, 8-bit RISC microcontroller clocked at 24MHz and equipped with 16KB of SRAM and 128KB of flash storage. Since the RAM was too low, he added 30-pin 16MB SIMM to the machine and a 1 GB SD card to host Ubuntu image. … To get the world’s slowest Linux Computer running, he had to write an ARMv5 emulator which supports a 32bit processor and MMU. A similar machine can be made very easily and everything should come in about $20.

linux on 8 bit processor

There is source code available, but it’s under a non-commercial use only license. Just how slow is it? “It takes about 2 hours to boot to bash prompt (‘init=/bin/bash’ kernel command line). Then 4 more hours to boot up the entire Ubuntu (‘exec init’ and then login). Starting X takes a lot longer. The effective emulated CPU speed is about 6.5KHz, which is on par with what you’d expect emulating a 32-bit CPU & MMU on a measly 8-bit micro. Curiously enough, once booted, the system is somewhat usable. You can type a command and get a reply within a minute.” If you like watching a whole lot of nothing, there’s a video of the boot process below the fold.

Setting up your Linux box to serve as a DHCP server or a DHCP client

DHCP is Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. It is used to control vital networking parameters of hosts (running clients) with the help of a server. DHCP is backward compatible with BOOTP. For more information see RFC 2131 (old RFC 1541) and other. (See Internet Resources section at the end of the tutorial).

This tutorial covers both the DHCP _SERVER_ daemon as well as DHCP _CLIENT_ daemon. Most people need the client daemon which is used by workstations to obtain network information from a remote server. The server daemon is used by system administrators to distribute network information to clients so if you are just a regular user you need the _CLIENT_ daemon.

1. Client Setup

Currently there are three different DHCP client programs for Linux, dhcpcd, pump and dhclient. This tutorial deals primarily with dhcpcd.

1.1. Downloading the client daemon (dhcpcd)

Depending on your distribution you might have to download the DHCP client daemon. If you want to compile it from the source you package you need is called dhcpcd and the current version is 1.3.18. It is maintained by Sergei Viznyukand today it comes as a binary package with most distributions.

dhcpcd source can be downloaded from following location

ftp://ftp.phystech.com/pub/

Then follow the instructions below. They should be the same.

1.2. Slackware

You can download the latest copy of the DHCPcd from any Metalab mirror or following:

ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/system/network/daemons

ftp://ftp.phystech.com/pub/ (Primary site)

Download the latest version of dhcpcd.tar.gz.

Unpack it

tar -zxvf dhcpcd-1.3.18pl1.tar.gz

cd into the directory and make dhcpcd

cd dhcpcd-1.3.18pl1
make

Install it (you have to run the following command as root)

make install

This will create the directory /etc/dhcpc where DHCPcd will store the DHCP information and dhcpcd file will be copied into /usr/sbin.

In order to make the system initialize using DHCP during boot type:

cd /etc/rc.d
mv rc.inet1 rc.inet1.OLD

This will move the old network initialization script into rc.inet1.OLD. You now need to create the new rc.inet1 script. Following code is all you need:

#!/bin/sh
#
# rc.inet1 This shell script boots up the base INET system.
 
HOSTNAME=`cat /etc/HOSTNAME` #This is probably not necessary but I
#will leave it in anyways
 
# Attach the loopback device.
/sbin/ifconfig lo 127.0.0.1
/sbin/route add -net 127.0.0.0 netmask 255.0.0.0 lo
 
# IF YOU HAVE AN ETHERNET CONNECTION, use these lines below to configure the
# eth0 interface. If you're only using loopback or SLIP, don't include the
# rest of the lines in this file.
 
/usr/sbin/dhcpcd

Save it and reboot your computer.

When you are finished go the step 1.8.

1.3. RedHat 6.x and Mandrake 6.x

DHCPcd configuration under RedHat 6.0+ is really easy. All you need to do is start the Control Panel by typing control-panel.

  • Select “Network Configuration”
  • Click on Interfaces
  • Click Add
  • Select Ethernet

In the Edit Ethernet/Bus Interface select “Activate interface at boot time” as well as select “DHCP” as “Interface configuration protocol”

Please note that in RedHat 6.x Redhat as default includes a DHCP client called pump instead of above mentioned dhcpcd. CD-ROM does include dhcpcd RPM so if you have no luck with pump try with dhcpcd. After you install dhcpcd (e.g. rpm -i dhcpcd-1.3.17pl2-1.i386.rpm) you will have to make some changes (refer section 1.7).

Additional notes from Alexander Stevenson:

I had no luck with DHCPcd. What finally worked for me was “pump”, which comes with Linux Mandrake 6.0 (and so I assume it is included with RedHat as well). The command I used was:

pump -i eth0 -h hostname

It didn’t matter what “hostname” was, but without it the server would not respond.

I then changed the line in my /sbin/ifup script to reflect the change; the default version does not have the -h switch, and so didn’t work for me.

Basically, if you’re using linuxconf, and after setting the adapter to “DHCP” it still doesn’t work, try adding a “-h hostname” to the pump line in the /sbin/ifup script. My script now looks like this:

...
if [ -n "$PUMP" ]; then
echo -n "Determining IP information for $DEVICE..."
if /sbin/pump -i $DEVICE -h hostname; then
echo " done."
else
echo " failed."
exit 1
fi
else ...

Another more elegant way to add hostname field is provided by Aad van der Klaauw:

Currently i’m configuring a gateway system at home, needed to set the MAC address and use the ‘-h hostname’ workaround. So I decided to *not* change the script but to use the configure file. In my /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 I have added the following

DEVICE="eth0"
MACADDR="00:11:22:33:44:55"
DHCP_HOSTNAME="trigger_for_terayon"

Which will survive upgrades, and is imho a “cleaner” way.

That is it. Reboot your machine or type /sbin/ifup eth0 on the command line.

1.4. RedHat 5.x

DHCPcd configuration under RedHat 5.0+ is really easy. All you need to do is start the Control Panel by typing control-panel.

  • Select “Network Configuration”
  • Click on Interfaces
  • Click Add
  • Select Ethernet
  • In the Edit Ethernet/Bus Interface select “Activate interface at boot time” as well as select “DHCP” as “Interface configuration protocol”

When you are finished go the step 1.8.

1.5. RedHat 4.x and Caldera OpenLinux 1.1/1.2

DHCPcd is included in the standard RedHat distribution as an RPM and you can find it on your distribution’s CD-ROM in RPMS directory or you can download it from:

ftp://ftp.redhat.com/pub/redhat/redhat-4.2/i386/RedHat/RPMS/dhcpcd-0.6-2.i386.rpm

Install it with rpm -i dhcpcd-0.6-2.i386.rpm.

Alternatively you can compile your own version by following the steps outlined in the Slackware.

The following information was provided to me by nothing.

Removed my static ip and name from /etc/resolv.conf. However, I did leave in the search line and my two nameserver lines (for some reason my dhcpcd never creates a /etc/dhcpc/resolv.conf, so I have to use a static /etc/resolv.conf).

In /etc/sysconfig/network I removed the HOSTNAME and GATEWAY entries. I left the other entries as is (NETWORKING, DOMAINNAME, GATEWAYDEV).

In /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 I removed the IPADDR, NETMASK, NETWORK, and BROADCAST entries. I left DEVICE and ONBOOT as is. I changed the BOOTPROTO line to BOOTPROTO=dhcp.

Save the file. Reboot your computer.

When you are finished go the last step.

1.6. Debian

There is a deb package of DHCPcd (make sure it starts with dhcpcd) at:

http://ftp.debian.org/debian/dists/slink/main/binary-i386/net/

Or, follow the Slackware installation instructions at section 1.2.

To unpack the deb package type dpkg -i /where/ever/your/debian/packages/are/dhcpcd*deb.

It appears that there isn’t a need for any DHCPcd configuration because:

The dhcpcd package installs it’s startup script as usual for debian packages in /etc/init.d/package_name, here as /etc/init.d/dhcpcd, and links this to the various /etc/rc?.d/ directories.

The contents of the /etc/rc?.d/ dirs is then executed at boot time.

If you don’t reboot after installing you should consider starting the daemon manually: /etc/init.d/dhcpcd start.

When you are finished go the last step 1.8.

1.7. LinuxPPC and MkLinux

As of the “1999” (R5) release, Linuxppc is now almost completely compatible with Redhat 6, with one caveat (see below). In general the instructions are exactly the same as for the current release of RedHat 6.x and Mandrake 6.x (Step 1.3).

The remaining problem is that Redhat 6 uses the ‘pump’ client for dhcp by default, and ‘pump’ doesn’t work reliably in Linuxppc. To get around this, you should install the latest dhcpcd from Sergei Viznyuk, and then edit /sbin/ifup to use dhcpcd instead of pump.

Change

if [ "$BOOTPROTO" = bootp -o "$BOOTPROTO" = dhcp ]; then
PUMP=true
fi
 
if [ -n "$PUMP" ]; then

with

if [ "$BOOTPROTO" = bootp ]; then
echo " done."
else
echo " failed."
exit 1
fi
elif [ "$BOOTPROTO" = dhcp ]; then
echo -n "Determining IP information for $DEVICE..."
if /sbin/dhcpcd -d $DEVICE ; then
if [ -f /etc/dhcpc/dhcpcd-${DEVICE}.exe ]; then
/etc/dhcpc/dhcpcd-${DEVICE}.exe
fi

and a coresponding changes for ifdown. Change

if [ "$BOOTPROTO" = bootp -o "$BOOTPROTO" = dhcp ]; then
....
fi

with

if [ "$BOOTPROTO" = bootp ]; then
fi
 
if [ "$BOOTPROTO" = dhcp ]; then
if [ -f /var/run/dhcpcd-${DEVICE}.pid ]; then
kill `cat /var/run/dhcpcd-${DEVICE}.pid`
rm -f /var/run/dhcpcd-${DEVICE}.pid
fi
fi

A working ppc rpm for dhcpcd is included on the Linuxppc 1999 cd; a slightly later rpm is available in the contrib directory on ftp://ftp.linuxppc.org/. Sources, which compile out of the box in Linuxppc 1999, are available from ftp://ftp.phystech.com/pub/dhcpcd-1.3.17-pl9.tar.gz.

1.8. Tying it all together

After your machine reboots your network interface should be configured. Type: ifconfig.

You should get something like this:

lo Link encap:Local Loopback
inet addr:127.0.0.1 Bcast:127.255.255.255 Mask:255.0.0.0
UP BROADCAST LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:3584 Metric:1
RX packets:302 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:302 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 coll:0
 
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:20:AF:EE:05:45
inet addr:24.128.53.102 Bcast:24.128.53.255 Mask:255.255.254.0
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
UP BROADCAST NOTRAILERS RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:24783 errors:1 dropped:1 overruns:0 frame:1
TX packets:11598 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 coll:96
Interrupt:10 Base address:0x300

If you have some normal number under inet addr you are set. If you see 0.0.0.0 don’t despair, it is a temporary setting before dhcpcd acquires the IP address. If even after few minutes you are seeing 0.0.0.0 please check out Troubleshooting. DHCPcd is a daemon and will stay running as long as you have your machine on. Every three hours it will contact the DHCP server and try to renew the IP address lease. It will log all the messages in the syslog (on Slackware /var/adm/syslog, RedHat/OpenLinux /var/log/syslog).

One final thing. You need to specify your nameservers. There are two ways to do it, you can either ask your provider to provide you with the addresses of your name server and then put those in the /etc/resolv.conf or DHCPcd will obtain the list from the DHCP server and will build a resolv.conf in /etc/dhcpc.

I decided to use DHCPcd’s resolv.conf by doing the following:

Back up your old /etc/resolv.conf: mv /etc/resolv.conf /etc/resolv.conf.OLD

If directory /etc/dhcpc doesn’t exist create it: mkdir /etc/dhcpc

Make a link from /etc/dhcpc/resolv.conf to /etc/resolv.conf: ln -s /etc/dhcpc/resolv.conf /etc/resolv.conf

If that doesn’t work try this:

This last step I had to perform only because my dhcpcd doesn’t create an /etc/dhcpc/resolv.conf. In /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifup I made the following changes (which are a very poor hack, but they work for me):

elif [ "$BOOTPROTO" = dhcp -a "$ISALIAS" = no ]; then
echo -n "Using DHCP for ${DEVICE}... "
/sbin/dhcpcd -c /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifdhcpc-done ${DEVICE}
echo "echo \$$ > /var/run/dhcp-wait-${DEVICE}.pid; exec sleep 30" | sh
 
if [ -f /var/run/dhcp-wait-${DEVICE}.pid ]; then
^^^^
echo "failed."
exit 1

I changed to:

elif [ "$BOOTPROTO" = dhcp -a "$ISALIAS" = no ]; then
echo -n "Using DHCP for ${DEVICE}... "
/sbin/dhcpcd
echo "echo \$$ > /var/run/dhcp-wait-${DEVICE}.pid; exec sleep 30" | sh
 
if [ ! -f /var/run/dhcp-wait-${DEVICE}.pid ]; then
^^^^^^
echo "failed."
exit 1

Note: Notice the ! (bang) in if [ ! -f /var/run/dhcp-wait-${DEVICE}.pid ];

Now sit back and enjoy :-).

1.9. Various notes

Following step(s) are not necessary but might be useful to some people:

If you need network connectivity only occasionally you can start dhcpcd from the command line (you have to be root to do this) with: /usr/sbin/dhcpcd.

When you need to down (turn off) the network type /usr/sbin/dhcpcd -k.

1.10. Troubleshooting

If you have followed the steps outlined above and you are unable to access the network there are several possible explanations:

1.10.1. Your network card is not configured properly

During the boot up process your Linux will probe your network card and should say something along these lines:

eth0: 3c509 at 0x300 tag 1, 10baseT port, address 00 20 af ee 11 11, IRQ 10.
3c509.c:1.07 6/15/95 [email protected]

If a message like this doesn’t appear your ethernet card might not be recognized by your Linux system. If you have a generic ethernet card (a NE2000 clone) you should have received a disk with DOS utilities that you can use to set up the card. Try playing with IRQs until Linux recognizes your card (IRQ 9,10,12 are usually good).

1.10.2. Your DHCP server supports RFC 1541/My DHCP server is Windows NT

Try running dhcpcd by typing dhcpcd -r.

Use ifconfig to check if your network interface is configured (wait few seconds for the configuration process, initally it will say Inet.addr=0.0.0.0)

If this solves your problem add the “-r” flag to the boot up scripts, ie: instead of /sbin/dhcpcd you will have /sbin/dhcpcd -r.

For example under RedHat edit script /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifup and change the following:

IFNAME=$[ {DEVICE} \
"/sbin/dhcpcd -r -c /etc/"- etc etc.
1.10.3. During bootup I get error message "Using DHCP for eth0 ... failed" but my system works fine.

You are most likely using RedHat and you haven’t followed instructions carefully :-). You are missing the ! (bang) in one of the if statements. Jump to 1.8 and check how to fix it.

1.10.4. My network works for few minutes and then stops responding

There are some reports of gated (gateway daemon) screwing up routing on Linux boxes which results in problem described above. Check if gated is running with: ps -auxww | grep gate.

If it is try removing it with RedHat’s RPM manager or removing the entry in /etc/rc.d/.

1.10.5. My ethernet card is recognized during boot up but I still get "NO DHCPOFFER" message in my logs. I also happen to have a PCMCIA ethernet card.

You need to make sure that you have the 10BaseT port (“phone” plug) on your network card activated. Best way to verify it is to check what kind of connector your card is configured for during bootup e.g.

eth0: 3c509 at 0x300 tag 1, 10baseT port, address 00 20 af ee 11 11, IRQ 10.
^^^^^^^^^^^^
3c509.c:1.07 6/15/95 [email protected]

I have received reports of laptop users having this kind of problems due to the PCMCIA utilities (specifically ifport) that would set the connector type to 10Base2 (thinnet). You have to make sure you use 10BaseT for your connection. If you are not reconfigure the card and restart the computer.

1.10.6. My DHCP client broadcasts requests but no one answers

On some systems, you need to include some hostname for your machine as part of the request. With dhcpcd, do this with dhcpcd -h foohost Probably the hostname wanted will be your account username on the network.

1.10.7. I have followed all the steps but still my machine is not able to connect

The cable modem will usually memorize the ethernet address of your network card so if you connect a new computer or switch network cards you will somehow have to “teach” your cable modem to recognize the new computer/card. Usually you can turn of the modem and bring it back up while computer is on or you will have to call tech support and tell them that you have changed a network card in the computer.

You have firewall rules (ipfwadm rules) that disallow port 67/68 traffic used by DHCP to distribute configuration info. Check your firewall rules carefully.

1.10.8. I have MediaOne Express service and I still can't connect.

It appears that MediaOne has been using adding some things to DHCP that shouldn’t be there. Supposedly this is not a problem anymore but if you experience outages check for these things. If you are (un)lucky to have Windows NT on your machine if you go into Event Viewer you will see a warning like this:

DHCP received an unknown option 067 of length 005. The raw option data is
given below.
 
0000: 62 61 73 69 63 basic

If this is the problem go to ftp://vanbuer.ddns.org/pub/ and either download a binary or get the source for the change.

1.11. Alternative DHCP client (ISC dhclient)

If you have not had success getting your Linux connection running with the dhcpcd you might want to try ISC dhclient. dhclient comes with the DHCP distribution from ISC which includes both a DHCP client and a DHCP server. Instructions on how to get and compile the DHCP distribution can be found here. When you are done with it please return to this section to configure the client.

With the current version of the DHCP client, you don’t actually need a dhclient.conf. All you have to do is invoke dhclient e.g.: /sbin/dhclient.

This will configure all broadcast interfaces. If this doesn’t work or you want to specify only one interface create a /etc/dhclient.conf file with this example configuration.

interface "eth0" {
send dhcp-client-identifier 1:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx;
send dhcp-lease-time 86400;
}

Here we assume that the ethernet interface is eth0. If not change accordingly. Also replace xx:xx:xx:xx:xx with your ethernet address. This dhclient.conf makes the client look more like a Win95 client.

Continue reading…

Push Button Reset in Linux

So everybody is talking about a cool new Windows 8 feature called ‘Push Button Reset’. It will reset settings in Windows 8 to day #1. You can do the same with Linux / Unix, just run the command given below:

Warning: Do not run the following command on prods as upon executing this will halt your system and reset all basic settings.

sys-unconfig

At boot you need to change the root password, set new network configuration, time config, keyboard config, auth config (like use ldap or pam etc), and services config. Like Windows 8 IE/MSoffice, it will not modify Linux apps settings. Personally, I prefer editing individual files.

This is not a new feature as Windows 8 fan boys are claiming to be and it’s been around for ages. My best guess is that MS-Windows 8 users are going to use this feature frequently :P

Note: I’ve tested sys-unconfig on Solaris and RHEL. I’m not sure about Ubuntu but debconf provides similar features.

Debian 5.0.10 released

A few hours ago Debian team announced the 10th and final update of Debian 5.0 (Lenny). This update has removed all the security problems which were there in the oldstable release. Debian 5.0 was released on Feb 14th, 2009, and this is going to be last update for it.

Due to some technical reasons “alpha” and “ia64” packages (from DSA 1769) are not included in this point release.

Note: Security support for oldstable distro ended in Feb 2012 and no updates have been released since then.

This updates includes many packages and updates of “security.debian.org“.

Upgrading

To upgrade your Debian to this new update point your aptitude (or apt) package tool to one of the FTP/HTTP mirrors of Debian. You can find the list of mirrors at:

http://www.debian.org/mirror/list

On 24th March this oldstable distro will be moved to archive.debian.org (archive of old distributions of Debian) and will no longer be available from the main mirror network.

Linux Mint 12 LXDE edition is out!

Linux Mint 12 LXDE RC

Yesterday on March 9th Linux Mint development team announced the release of Linux Mint 12 LXDE.

Linux Mint 12 LXDE RC
Linux Mint 12 LXDE

On Feb 27th Linux Mint 12 LXDE RC was launched, the features are exactly the same no changes have been done on it. You may refer this post to check new features and system requirements.

Upgrading

To upgrade from an older version of Linux Mint follow these directions.

Download

Linux Mint 12 LXDE torrent file
Linux Mint 12 LXDE direct download